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A subset of EMV specifications

In General, the specifications are aimed at ensuring compatibility – the most important for the practice of payment systems properties of cards correctly served at different terminals and properties of terminals correctly serve different cards. EMV specifications define a certain base on which each payment Association defines its chip products. The payment system specifications describe the basic rules for working with a product called a debit/credit chip card. This product is in the financial sense an ordinary Bank product-a card, in...

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Classification of chip cards, description of the principles and technology of operation

Chip cards (or, as they are also called, cards with a chip) turned out to be more attractive for implementing offline authorization ideas. A chip card contains a chip whose properties determine the functionality of the card as a technological product (the functionality of the card as a product, for example, a Bank card, determines the corresponding rules). Chip cards are classified according to the following criteria:chip type;method of reading information;conformity to standards;application.depending on the built-in chip, chip cards are...

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Development of payment cards technologies

A payment card can be viewed from various points of view: as a product offered by the Issuer to the holder (for example, as a Bank product), as a technical product of the card manufacturer, or even as a work of applied art. However, this consideration of cards from different points of view is very conditional, since all aspects of cards are closely interrelated. A card issued by a Bank could be considered as a remote access tool to the Bank account, allowing any transactions to be made on the account. This is true for most Bank cards, but...

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Payment systems based on Bank cards

The General principles of functioning of the payment system The main purpose of a payment system based on payment cards is to perform payments between the service/product supplier (seller) and the consumer of the service/product (buyer) who presented the payment card for payment. However, it is important to emphasize that these payments are made in non-cash form.In addition, the payment system ensures that the cardholder receives cash both on special devices-ATMs, and in operational cash desks that provide such services.in the most General...

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Banking products based on smart cards

Bank payment cards were originally created as a retail product aimed at the holder – an individual. And now all over the world, payment cards for banks are one of the most important areas of retail business. At the same time, the marketing goals of the business may be different. In the General case, depending on these purposes it is possible to distinguish three main directions of the use of payment cards:to work with the Bank’s clients – natural persons;to work with legal entities and their employees in the framework of...

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Classification of modern plastic cards

Classification of modern cards (or introduction to terminology) Cards can be classified in different ways. Each of the classification systems will be coherent and logical in its own way. It all depends on what principle it is based on.For example, cards can be divided by the organizations that issue them (issuers) and, accordingly, by the scope of application. For example, Bank cards are issued by banks, shopping cards are issued by stores, gas station chains issue fuel cards, and transport organizations (metro, railway) issue transport...

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Development of contactless EMV cards

The idea of using a chip that interacts with the outside world using electromagnetic waves, i.e. contactless, appeared in the first half of the 90s. Cards using such chips became known as contactless cards.At first, contactless cards were exclusively memory cards. These cards were mainly used as a means of identifying an object (Radio Frequency ID, or RFID). For example, they were used to detect an object that fell into the reader’s working area (single-bit chips used in anti-theft systems), identify the object (in addition to detecting...

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Forgery of the cryptogram type

Let’s focus on another type of fraud on the part of an unscrupulous merchant. In simplified form, fraud looks like this.When a microprocessor card holder applies to a merchant for a purchase, the merchant completes any terminal/card decision by rejecting the transaction. In this case, the cardholder either leaves the merchant with nothing, or pays for the product in cash.Next, the fraudulent merchant sends data on the unsuccessful transaction to the servicing Bank, as if the transaction was completed successfully in offline mode. In...

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ARQC cryptogram generation

The CAP standard defines the most common OTP generation algorithm in the banking sector.The essence of CAP technology is as follows. It is assumed that the client has:a card with a standard EMV application that supports the PIN Offline cardholder verification method;a special device with a screen, keyboard, special buttons and a card reader for IPC (we will continue to call it a reader, in the literature it is often called PCR-Personal Card Reader).After the customer has inserted the card into the reader, the latter offers the cardholder to...

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GlobalPlatform Card Security Requirements Specification

GlobalPlatformIn the late 1990s, VISA developed a set of VISA OpenPlatform (VOP) standards that defined how applications can be remotely managed on the card, terminal, and systems related to downloading, installing, deleting, and personalization of applications.It soon became clear that in order for the VOP platform to be widely distributed, it had to be as open as possible. As a result, the VOP specifications were transferred by VISA to the OpenPlatform consortium, consisting of a number of organizations that expressed interest in the VOP...

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